Pivko D., 2021: A review of Slovak travertine and tufa facies and their environment. Acta Geologica Slovaca, 13, 2, 129–166.


A review of Slovak travertine and tufa facies and their environment

Daniel Pivko

Department of Geology and Paleontology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Ilkovičova 6, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovakia; daniel.pivko@uniba.sk

Abstract

Eighty principal Slovak travertines, tufas and lacustrine/palustrine limestones were studied in terms of facies and their environment. Travertines are most frequently formed on spring mounds and less fissure ridges with the alternation of crystalline crust and microphyte beds in different proportion. Macrophyte tufas were abundant in valley dams and on perched springline deposits often with accompanied microphytes. Crystalline crust facies on fixed substrate are represented by crystalline crust travertines with fan- to feather-like, laminated fan, and banded palisade crystals, radiating dendrites, rafts, and coated bubbles. Microphyte facies on fixed substrate occur in the forms of microbial mats, cruststones and shrubs. Abundant macrophyte tufas contain coated moss and vascular plant remnants. Gastropoda, ostracoda and caddisfly larvae cases were identified. Granular facies of abiotic/biotic origin are developed in lime-mudstone facies, coated grain travertine facies, and intraclast facies of diverse origin.


Key words: fresh-water limestones, Western Carpathians texture, crystalline crust, microphyte, macrophyte


Manuscript received: 2021-02-08

Revised version accepted: 2021-11-08


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